Turkmenistan Tour

Turkmenistan is a landlocked country located in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, and Iran to the south. To the west, Turkmenistan is bounded by the Caspian Sea, which serves as its only coastline.



Turkmenistan experiences a predominantly arid climate with hot summers and mild winters. The Karakum Desert covers much of the country, contributing to its arid conditions. Summers can be scorching, with temperatures often exceeding 40°C (104°F), while winters are relatively mild, with temperatures dropping to around freezing.


Despite its harsh climate, Turkmenistan is home to a variety of wildlife, including mammals such as gazelles, wild boars, wolves, and foxes. The desert environment also supports reptiles such as snakes and lizards, while the Caspian Sea provides habitat for marine life such as sturgeon and Caspian seals.

Longest Rivers

The Amu Darya and Syr Darya are the two longest rivers in Turkmenistan. The Amu Darya, also known as the Oxus River, forms much of Turkmenistan’s border with Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, while the Syr Darya flows along its northern border with Uzbekistan.

Highest Mountains

Turkmenistan is relatively flat, with no major mountain ranges. The highest point in the country is Gora Ayribaba, which rises to an elevation of 3,139 meters (10,299 feet) in the southeastern part of the country.



The territory of present-day Turkmenistan has been inhabited since ancient times, with evidence of human settlement dating back thousands of years. The region was part of the ancient Persian Empire and later came under the control of various nomadic tribes, including the Scythians and the Parthians.

Medieval Period

During the medieval period, Turkmenistan was part of the Islamic Caliphate and later the Persian and Mongol Empires. The Silk Road, an ancient trade route that connected East and West, passed through the region, bringing wealth and cultural exchange.

Russian Empire and Soviet Era

Turkmenistan came under Russian influence in the 19th century and became part of the Russian Empire. In 1924, it became one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. During this time, the Soviet government implemented policies aimed at modernizing the country’s economy and infrastructure, including the development of agriculture and industry.


Turkmenistan gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 following its collapse. Saparmurat Niyazov, the former First Secretary of the Communist Party, became the country’s first president and ruled until his death in 2006. Since then, Turkmenistan has been led by President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, who has continued Niyazov’s policies of centralized control.


Turkmenistan has a population of approximately 6 million people, with ethnic Turkmen comprising the majority of the population. Other ethnic groups include Uzbeks, Russians, and Kazakhs. The official language is Turkmen, although Russian is also widely spoken, especially in urban areas. The majority of the population adheres to Islam, particularly Sunni Islam.

Administrative Divisions

Turkmenistan is divided into five regions, known as velayatlar, each headed by a governor appointed by the central government. The administrative divisions and their respective populations are as follows:

  1. Ahal Region – Population: 1.3 million
  2. Balkan Region – Population: 1.2 million
  3. Dashoguz Region – Population: 1.5 million
  4. Lebap Region – Population: 1.4 million
  5. Mary Region – Population: 1.2 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Turkmenistan by population are:

  1. Ashgabat
  2. Turkmenabat
  3. Dasoguz
  4. Mary
  5. Balkanabat
  6. Bayramaly
  7. Tejen
  8. Abadan
  9. Serdar
  10. Turkmenbashi

Education Systems

Education in Turkmenistan is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 17. The country has a centralized education system overseen by the Ministry of Education. Turkmenistan has several universities and institutes offering higher education, including Turkmen State University and Turkmen Agricultural University.



Turkmenistan has several airports, with Ashgabat International Airport being the largest and busiest. Other major airports include Turkmenabat Airport, Dashoguz Airport, and Mary Airport.


Turkmenistan has a well-developed railway network operated by the state-owned Türkmendemirýollary (Turkmen Railways). The total length of railways in Turkmenistan is approximately 2,980 kilometers (1,850 miles), connecting major cities and towns across the country.


Turkmenistan has an extensive network of highways, with the most important being the M37, which runs from Ashgabat to Turkmenabat. Other major highways include the M41, which connects Ashgabat to the Iranian border, and the M38, which runs from Ashgabat to the Uzbek border.


The Port of Turkmenbashi is Turkmenistan’s main port on the Caspian Sea and serves as a crucial gateway for maritime trade with other countries in the region.

Country Facts

  • Population: 6 million
  • Capital: Ashgabat
  • Language: Turkmen (official), Russian
  • Religion: Islam (predominantly Sunni)
  • Race: Turkmen, Uzbek, Russian, Kazakh
  • Currency: Turkmenistan Manat (TMT)
  • ISO Country Codes: TM, TKM
  • International Calling Code: +993
  • Top-Level Domain: .tm