China Foreign Policy

China Foreign Policy

Since the beginning of the reform and opening-up period in 1978, China’s leaders have regularly traveled around the world and have sought a higher profile in the United Nations through its permanent seat on the UN Security Council and other multilateral organizations.

According to healthknowing, China has made efforts to reduce tensions in its nearby Asian parts. Its relations with its Asian neighbors became stable during the last decades of the twentieth century. It has contributed to stability on the Korean Peninsula, forming a more cooperative relationship with members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Cambodia, Myanmar, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam), and has also participated in the Regional Forum For ASEAN. ASEAN member states China, South Korea and Japan agreed in 1997 to hold annual talks to further enhance regional cooperation, what was later known as the ASEAN Plus Three meetings. The ASEAN Plus Three countries, along with India, Australia and New Zealand, held the inaugural East Asia Summit in 2005. Relations with Vietnam have improved since fighting a border war with the one-time close ally in 1979. China’s territorial dispute with its Southeast Asian neighbors over the islands in The South China Sea remains unresolved, similar to another dispute in the East China Sea with Japan. These conflicts have negatively affected China’s reputation in many parts of the world.

China has strengthened its relations with Russia. Vladimir Putin and Jiang Zemin signed a friendship and cooperation treaty in July 2001, mainly aiming to work together as a counterpower to the United States of America. Russia and China also joined the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan to establish the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in June 2001. The SCO was designed to promote regional stability and cooperation in combating terrorism. In the region.

China’s relations with India have improved significantly. Relations in the 21st century between the world’s two most populous countries have never been more harmonious, but they have begun to cooperate in many economic and strategic areas, after years of competition and general mistrust between the two countries (mostly due to China’s close relationship with Pakistan and India’s close relationship With the former Soviet Union ) and the border war. The two countries have doubled their economic trade in the past few years, and China became India’s largest trading partner in 2010. The two countries also planned to host joint naval exercises. China and India held negotiations for the first time since the Sino-Indian War in 1962 over one of the major border disputes: however, the disputes over Aksai Chin (which was part of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir), southern Tibet (China), and Arunachal Pradesh (India) were not settled. It disturbed Chinese-Indian relations. New Delhi has raised objections to Chinese military assistance to its arch-rivals Pakistan and neighboring Bangladesh, while Beijing has similarly opposed India’s growing military cooperation with Japan, Australia and the United States.

China has border and maritime disputes, including with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin and Japan. Beijing has resolved many of these disputes. In particular, on July 21, 2008, Russia finally resolved the last remaining border dispute along the 4,300 km border between the two countries by ceding a small area to China, in addition to China reaching an agreement in 2000 with Vietnam in order to resolve some disputes over its borders. Navy, although disputes persist over some islands in the South China Sea.

During the late 1990s and early 2000s, Chinese foreign policy seemed to focus on improving relations with Russia and Europe to create a counterweight to the United States. This strategy was based on the premise that the United States was a hyperpower whose influence could be limited through alliances with other powers, such as Russia or the European Union. This assessment of US power was revisited after the US intervention in Kosovo. As the twentieth century came to a close, the discussion among China’s think tanks included how to reorient Chinese foreign policy in a unipolar world. This discussion also occurred in the context of China’s New Security Concept, which argued that the post-Cold War era required countries to move away from thinking in terms of alliances and power blocs, and toward economic and diplomatic cooperation.

China has long been a close ally of North Korea, but it has also found a valuable trading partner in South Korea, eventually playing a role in the early 2000s as a supporter of the “six-party talks” (North Korea, South Korea, Russia, Japan, the United States, and China) to resolve tensions on the Korean Peninsula. China has been instrumental in mediating talks with North Korea over its nuclear program, and in 2003, there were coordinated efforts by China to improve relations with ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries and form a common East Asian market. These foreign policy efforts were part of an overall foreign policy initiative known as China’s Peaceful Rise. On November 15, 2005, Hu Jintao visited Seoul and spoke about the importance of the two countries’ contributions to peace and regional cooperation in economic development. Hu Jintao’s critics say his government has been overly aggressive in asserting its new authority, overstated its influence, and enraged and feared many neighbors, including Southeast Asian nations, India and Japan. Such policies are also said to be provocative towards the United States.

However, China’s opposition to the attempt of two of its important neighbors – India and Japan – to gain permanent membership in the UN Security Council has proven to be an irritant in their respective relations. China views Japan, with its significant economic and cultural influence in Asia, as its most bitter rival and partner in regional diplomacy. The two sides established diplomatic relations in 1972, and Japanese investment in China has been important in the early years of China’s economic reforms until now.

In 2019, the Pew Research Center conducted a survey of international opinion on China among the 34 countries surveyed. The survey indicated that an average of 41% of the countries surveyed have an unfavorable opinion of China, while an average of 40% have a positive opinion. In 17 countries, including Indonesia, Canada, Sweden, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and others, the average favorable opinion of China decreased in 2019 compared to 2018.

China Foreign Policy

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