Official name of the state
Arab Republic of Egypt.
Cairo (El Kahira).
According to a2zgov, Egypt borders the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west, and the Red Sea and Israel to the east. The Nile Delta is in Lower Egypt and the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. To the east of the Suez Canal lies the Sinai Peninsula. Approx. 99% of the population live in the agricultural Nile valley on the delta, behind which the mostly flat desert begins. 90% of the national territory of Egypt consists of desert. Oases are the only remnants of the formerly fertile western lowlands. Narrow coastal regions on the Mediterranean and the African side of the Red Sea are inhabited, but the Sinai is generally dry. The Aswan Dam slows the tide that used to regularly flood the Nile Valley and is used to generate electricity. The highest point in the country is the Jabal Katrina (Katharinenberg) with a height of 2637 m.
Presidential republic since 1953. Old constitution from 1971. New constitution from January 2014. Bicameral parliament (people’s assembly and Shura council). The parliament was dissolved in June 2012. Independent since 1922 (former British protectorate).
Head of state
Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, since May 2014.
Head of government
Sherif Ismail, since September 2015.
220 V, 50 Hz. In some rural areas 110-380 V. Two-prong power outlets are standard.
Eastern European Time: CET +3
- Ful medames(broad beans with eggs)
- Baba Ghanoush(eggplant and sesame paste puree)
- Fuul(broad beans with garlic, olive oil, lemon juice and spices)
- Filled wine leaves
- Kebabs(meat roasted on a spit).
- Koshari(dish made from rice, lentils, noodles and tomatoes)
Anyone invited to dinner in a private house should consider it a special honor if they are served poultry, lamb or veal. Egyptians see meat dishes as a luxury. Pigeons are a delicacy and are only prepared with great care on special occasions, and the pigeons are often served headed.
A service charge of 10-15% will be added to restaurant bills. Housekeeping, porters and other servants are happy to receive a small tip of the equivalent of 50 cents or € 1. In the taxi, the price is rounded up.
Besides strong coffee, the most popular drink in Egypt is tea, which is often flavored with mint or herbs. Other typical drinks are:
- Kahwa(thick, black coffee)
- Shay bil na’na ‘(mint tea)
- Karkaday(bright red drink made from hibiscus flowers)
- Aswanli(dark beer produced in Aswan)
- Zibib(alcoholic drink that tastes like anise)
Minimum age for consuming alcoholic beverages
In Egypt you can drink alcohol from the age of 21.
90% Muslim (almost exclusively Sunnis); 9% Christian minorities (including the Coptic Church) and a small Jewish community (1%).
Social rules of conduct
Etiquette: Islamic influence is reflected in many customs. The people are polite and hospitable and expect similar respect from their guests. You shake hands to greet you, with men only shaking a woman’s hand when she offers it to him.
Clothing: Restrained clothing is appropriate in many places, mini skirts, low necklines, etc. should be avoided. When visiting a religious building, arms and legs should always be covered, and women should cover their hair. Western clothing is accepted in all modern nightclubs, restaurants, hotels and bars in Cairo, Alexandria and other vacation spots. Official or social events and upscale restaurants require more elegant attire. Swimwear belongs on the beach.
Photographing: Photographing in many archaeological sites is chargeable (E £ 7.50-15.00), but no flash or tripod is permitted. Photography has been prohibited in pyramids, museums and tombs since 2003. Cameras are not allowed in the Valley of the Kings. Violations are punishable by heavy fines, and under certain circumstances the camera may even be withheld. People should be asked before they are photographed. Some Muslims cannot be photographed for religious reasons.
Smoking: There is no legally regulated smoking ban in Egypt, but some restaurants divide into smoking and non-smoking areas. Out of respect for the Muslim faith, one should not smoke in public during the fasting month of Ramadan before sunset.
Tip: A tip of 10 percent is expected in the restaurant. It should be given discreetly in cash. Other service providers such as taxi drivers, housekeeping and porters are also happy to receive tips.
Best travel time
The climate varies from region to region, ranging from Mediterranean to desert.
The Mediterranean coast and the Nile Delta have a Mediterranean climate.
In Cairo, Central and Upper Egypt, the climate is desert-like, hot and dry in summer, dry in winter and warm during the day with cold nights. Except in the coastal areas, hardly any rainfall. In April, the hot, dusty desert wind blows Khamsin. The summer months are very hot.
Alexandria, Cairo, and the Mediterranean coast are popular travel destinations all year round. It is best to travel to Upper Egypt from autumn to spring.
Area code +20 Area (square km) 1001450 Population 88 487 396 Population density (per square km) 88 Population in 2015 Member of the EU No main emergency number 123