Guinea’s coastline is just over 250 km long, forming a strongly cut ria coast (coast that is formed by lowering the land surface) with many estuaries and mangrove marshes. Within the swamps lies a 50-80 km wide coastal plain, which in terraces rises up towards the Fouta Djalon massif. It is a deep cut, approx. 1000 m high plateau, mainly made up of sandstone. The highest point is Mont Kavendou, 1425 meters above sea level. Several large rivers originate in Fouta Djalon, among others. Niger, Senegal and Gambia rivers e.
The southeastern part of Guinea belongs to the Guinea Highlands, which is made up of granites, gneisses, slates and quartzites. The landscape consists of rounded, wooded hills, with some higher peaks, i. Nimba, 1752 masl, the highest mountain in the country. Around Nimba, a nature reserve has been created which is listed on UNESCO’s List of World Cultural and Natural Heritage. A wide plateau area in the northeast slopes down towards the Niger River. The average elevation is 300 meters above sea level, but there are several “insel mountains”, consisting either of granite domes or sandstone outcrops from Fouta Djalon.
Guinea is located in the tropical climate zone. At the south-west coast of the country, the southwest monsoon dominates, bringing large rainfall. Thus, in Conakry, the annual rainfall is 4300 mm, which falls from May to November. The annual average temperature here is 27 °C, with April and August being the warmest and coldest months respectively.
In Fouta Djalon, the rainfall is somewhat less than on the coast, usually 1500-2000 mm per year, but the rainy season is up to two months longer. Because of. the altitude is somewhat lower than the coast.
In Guinea highlands, rainfall is greater again, and the drying time is often only one month. In addition, there is a tendency for two rainfall maximum here. In the northern and western savanna areas, the annual rainfall is approx. 1500 mm, with relatively large temperature fluctuations between night and day during the drying season.
Plant life in Guinea
The flora belongs to the paleotropic flora kingdom. Along the swampy coast, mangrove forests and oil palm trees grow. The coastal plain was previously covered by tropical rainforests with mahogany and ebony trees. Now there are only scattered stocks left. The rest is transformed into savannah as a result of cutting down and increased grazing pressure from livestock. The plateau areas have savanna vegetation with some monkey bread and butter trees. The savannah grass can be over 3 m high in the rainy season. The mountain areas are wooded.
Wildlife in Guinea
Guinea has a rich mammalian fauna with squirrels and other rodents, half monkeys, cat cats, chimpanzees, honey badgers, sneak cats, small cats, antelopes and coffee buffalo. In savannas lives besides elephant, warthog, spotted hyena, stripesjakal, patas monkey and guinea baboon. Colobus monkeys, leopards, brush pigs and divers (small antelopes) can be found in the rainforest.
The marabas are among the more than 600 bird species found in Guinea.
Hippos, Senegal Manatees (a sea cow), crocodiles and a variety of fish species are found in the rivers.
Manatees. Amerikamanat; like other aquatic mammals, the sea cows must surface to breathe.
There are many snakes, including boa constrictors, cobras and mamba. Among the more than 600 species of birds in Guinea, there are marabas, vultures and a large number of birds of prey, guinea fowl, turakos, icebergs, beards, weavers and sunbirds.