On March 1st, 2016, a motion of no confidence by the opposition against the president failed in parliament. Zuma stood among other things. Criticized for the renovation of his private residence. The Constitutional Court ruled on March 31, 2016 that Zuma had disregarded the constitution by using public funds for the renovation. On April 5, 2016, Parliament refused to initiate impeachment proceedings against him by an ANC majority. With an average of 54% of the vote, the ANC achieved the worst result since the end of apartheid in the local elections on August 3rd, 2016. In mid-October 2016, President Zuma delayed first the publication of a report by the anti-corruption authority. The report, which was then published, corroborated the allegations that were already circulating in the media about the illegitimate influence of the Gupta entrepreneurial family from India on the government. The authority recommended the establishment of an independent commission of inquiry. Another motion of no confidence against Zuma failed on November 10, 2016. The corruption allegations, renewed student protests and the difficult economic situation put the government under further pressure. President Zuma responded by reshuffing the government and on March 30, 2017, replaced a third of the cabinet, mostly critics of his policies. The internationally respected finance minister also fell victim to the personnel rogue Pravin Gordhan (* 1949), which caused turbulence on the foreign exchange market and the stock exchange. On August 8, 2017, Zuma survived another vote of no confidence.
Economic and political reconstruction (from 2018)
On December 18, 2017, Vice President C. Ramaphosa was elected to succeed Zuma as ANC Chairman. Under massive pressure from the ANC leadership, Zuma finally announced his resignation from the presidency on February 14, 2018, thus anticipating a planned vote of no confidence. On February 15, 2018, the parliament elected Ramaphosa as the new head of state.
In the parliamentary elections on May 8, 2019, according to neovideogames, 57.5% of South Africans eligible to vote voted for the ruling ANC, the worst result for the ANC since it came to power in 1994. The liberal Democratic Alliance (DA), which is considered the party of the whites, became the second strongest force, but also suffered losses. The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), which advocated the expropriation of white farmers without compensation, increased significantly by 10.8%. The low turnout was a clear sign of popular dissatisfaction with the political leadership and the economic situation, which was characterized by massive public debt, high unemployment and widespread poverty.
Since the mid-1980s, the Republic of South Africa has sought to establish itself in its foreign policy through treaties v. a. to be freed from the pressure of the frontline states. In 1984 a non-aggression treaty was signed with Mozambique, in 1988 an armistice with SWAPO and with Cuba, which supported the SWAPO guerrillas operating in Namibia; this opened the way for Namibia to be released from its dependence on South Africa.
With the peaceful political upheaval, South Africa also emerged from its foreign policy isolation and was able to gradually establish itself as a leading power in southern Africa. After the economic sanctions had been gradually lifted by the OAU, the UN and the EU states since the end of 1993, they were re-admitted to the OAU in May 1994 and to the Commonwealth in June 1994, and to the UN on June 23, 1994 Joined the South African Development Community (SADC) in July 1994. At the same time, South Africa endeavored to strengthen its political significance through mediation attempts in African crisis regions (including the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi) and through active participation in intra-African peace missions. By hosting the soccer World Cup in 2010, South Africa was able to gain international renown. The country strives for economic emphasis within the BRICS states.
The location south of the tropic, the altitude of the inland and the adjacent seas determine the climate, which is warm-temperate in most of the country. The coastal belt of KwaZulu / Natal has a subtropical climate, the southwestern province of Western Cape has a Mediterranean climate. The mean annual temperature of Pretoria, which is closer to the tropics(Tshwane, 1,370 m above sea level) is 18 ° C, only slightly above that of Cape Town (16 ° C). Inland, temperatures can reach 30–40 ° C in summer, and there can be frost in winter. The country has little precipitation; 65% of the area receives less than 500 mm of precipitation per year. This so-called 500 isohyete is typically defined as the limit for rainproof agriculture. The warm, humid air masses of the Indian Ocean and the prevailing south-east trade wind bring the highest amounts of precipitation to the coastal area of KwaZulu / Natal and the eastern Great Rim ( Durban 1 018 mm annual mean); they get smaller and smaller towards the west and north (Upington 195 mm). Most precipitation falls in summer, only in the southwest in winter. Since there is sometimes no precipitation at all, drought disasters occur again and again. South Africa meets most of its water needs with surface water that is collected in large reservoirs. Due to the expected extreme dry periods caused by increasing consumption and global climate change, the country is threatened with a massive water supply crisis.