According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER, Zambia is a landlocked country in southern Africa. In the west it borders on Angola, in the north on the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, in the west on Malawi and Mozambique, in the south on Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia. Zambia covers the hull area of the central and eastern Lundaschwelle with island mountains. In the northeast it lies in the area of the East African rift system. The Zambezi and its tributaries run through the country.
The tropical highland climate is moderately warm and humid. Rainforest and dry forest cover a quarter of the country. Savannah areas shape the central part.
There are over 90 ethnic groups in Zambia. Most are Bantu tribes. 45% of the population already lives in cities. Three quarters of the population are Christians.
Agriculture and mining are the main industries. Tobacco, cotton and sugar cane are grown for export. Zambia is rich in natural resources. The most important source of foreign exchange is copper mining with the cobalt by-product. Ore smelting and the food and textile industry, chemical and pharmaceutical industries are important branches of the economy.
Zambia is more than twice the size of Germany. The capital is Lusaka.
Zambia largely encompasses the hull areas of the central eastern Lundaschwelle. They are between 1100 and 1500 m high and are dominated by island mountains. The Lunda wave borders southern Africa in the north and forms the watershed between the Congo and the Zambezi and thus between the Indian and the Atlantic Ocean.
The northeast of Zambia with Lake Tanganyika lies in the area of the East African rift system. This area has a moving relief as a fault zone. The highest altitude is reached at 2068 m. The East African rift system is one of the world’s great rift systems in East Africa. It stretches from the Njassa Trench in southeast Africa to the Western Asia to the Red Sea and the Jordan Trench.
With its numerous lakes and rivers, Zambia has almost half of the freshwater resources in southern Africa. Zambia is crossed by the Zambezi and its tributaries. The Zambezi is the most important river. It flows through the country over a length of 1550 km. The Victoria Falls on the border with Zimbabwe are among the largest waterfalls in the world. Over a length of 1700 m, the Zambezi falls here 110 m.
Zambia has a tropical highland climate. It is moderately warm and humid. The rainy season lasts from October to April. The coldest month is July with an average of 17 °C, the hottest October with 30 °C (Fig. 3).
A quarter of the land area of Zambia is covered with forest. There are rainforest areas in the southeast. Large parts of the area are covered by deciduous dry forest. Savannah areas shape the central parts of Zambia. They consist of open grasslands with individual groups of trees. There are wetlands along many rivers.
Important data about the country
|Surface:||752 614 km²|
|Population density:||14 residents / km²|
|Growth of population:||1.2% / year|
|Life expectancy:||36 years|
|Form of government:||republic|
|Languages:||English, various Bantu languages|
|Religions:||Christians 72%, followers of natural religions 27%|
|Climate:||tropical highland climate|
|Land use:||Arable land 7%, pasture land 47.2%, forest 27.2%|
(share of employees)
|Agriculture 23%, industry 27%, services 50%|
|Export goods:||Copper, cobalt, tobacco, cotton, sugar cane|
|Gross domestic product:||$ 4,335 million (2003)|
|Gross National Product:||US $ 380 / residents (2003)|
Three quarters of the workforce were employed in agriculture in the mid-1990’s. Maize, millet, cassava, vegetables and wheat are particularly grown for self-sufficiency. Tobacco, cotton and peanuts as well as sugar cane are grown on large farms for export.
In addition to agriculture, mining is the most important branch of the economy. Zambia has enormous natural resources. The most important source of foreign exchange is copper mining from the so-called Copperbelt in northern Zambia. In addition, hard coal, zinc, lead and silver are mined with the by-product cobalt. Electric energy is generated by hydropower plants on the Zambezi and Kafue.
By African standards, Zambia’s industry is well developed and varied. Ore smelting, metal, food and textile industries as well as chemical and pharmaceutical industries are the main focuses. Zambia’s main trading partners are Japan, the Republic of South Africa, Great Britain and Germany. The Tansam Railway gives inland Zambia a connection to the ocean. It leads to the port of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania and is used to ship export goods.
Tourism in Zambia is still underdeveloped. Individual tourism to the main attractions of the national parks and the Victoria Falls is promoted by the government.
Zambia has probably been populated for 70,000 years. Rock paintings from the early Stone Age are evidence of a very ancient culture. Bantu tribes migrated in several waves from the 3rd century BC. In the area. From the 10th century onwards, the Arabs and Portuguese established trade contacts with the Bantu tribes. Further tribes immigrated from the Congo in the 17th century. British rule over the area began in 1899. The “British South Africa Company” under the mine owner CECIL RHODES took over the administration of the area. After RHODES, the region of Rhodesia was named the British Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia.
In 1964 the country gained independence from Great Britain. The poor economic situation led to internal unrest in the Republic of Zambia in the 1980’s and 1990’s.