Cinema was born in Johannesburg in the 1910s with the weekly newsreel The African Mirror, and with IW Schlesinger’s company African Film Productions which monopolized for a long time the production of white films for whites, of exclusively internal consumption: mostly evocative historical epics military victories of Boers or English over the Zulus or other indigenous peoples, later supplemented by comedies or adventure films. The lack of competition from television and the business stimulus also suggested a production for blacks, almost completely aborted due to the control of government censorship. Since 1952, the first film with black actors, Cry the Beloved Country, had been shot by the British Z. Korda; and in 1959, clandestinely, Come Back Africa of L. Rogozin, dramatic testimony on ‘ apartheid and leader of the opposition films, which must be added the short Bantu Awake! (1964) by the black South African filmmaker L. N’Gakane (author in 1966 of Jemina and Johnny, set in London on an anti-racist theme) and in the seventies the medium- length films The End of Dialogue and The Last Tomb in Dimbaza (1976) by N Mahomo, mounted in exile. To the same decade belong How Long (1976) from the musical by G. Kente (imprisoned during the shooting), the first film entirely produced and made by blacks; Siener in die suburbs (1972) by F. Swart on a Johannesburg seer; and the two, written and interpreted by A. Fugard and directed by Ross Devenish, Boesman and Lena (1972), a love affair and vigorous denunciation of apartheid, and L’ospite, awarded at the 1977 Locarno Festival. the 1980s apartheid continued to mark South African cinema. Noteworthy are the works of denunciation by N’Gakane (Nelson Mandela, 1985) and Oliver Schmitz (Mapantsula, 1987). Finally, with the end of apartheid, South African cinema was able to express interesting subjects and authors: in 2005 the film His name is Tsotsi by South African director Gavin Hood won the Oscar for best foreign film. In 2006, with Goodbye Bafana (The Color of Freedom), a co-production between South Africa, Belgium and Italy, director B. August tells the story of Nelson Mandela’s imprisonment through the memories of his white jailer.
According to programingplease, Pretoria, Tshwane, is the capital and seat of government of the Republic of South Africa, Gauteng province, 1,370 m above sea level, extends at the southern foot of the Magalisberg chain and has 741,700 residents in the urban area (2011), forms the metropolitan municipality of Tshwane (6,298 km 2, 2.92 million residents, as of 2011).
Catholic archbishopric and Anglican bishopric; University (founded in 1930), University of South Africa (UNISA, founded in 1951; one of the world’s largest distance learning universities with around 350,000 students), Vista University headquarters (1981), South African Academy of Science and Art, main institutes of the Council for Scientific and Industrialists Research (CSIR), veterinary research facility Onderstepoort (with world renown); State library, state theater, Transvaal (natural history), art, etc. Museums; zoological and botanical garden. – Pretoria is an important industrial location (mainly iron and steel, motor vehicle and cement industries; railway workshops); Rail and road junction.
The city was laid out with a chessboard-like floor plan and wide streets as well as many green spaces. The center is the Church Square with the monument to P. Krüger, the square is framed by the historic Raadsaal, the Palace of Justice and the former South African reserve bank. The Union Buildings (1910-13; seat of government) was built by the architect Sir Herbert Baker (* 1862, † 1946). In the southeast of the city is the monumental Voortrekker memorial (built 1938–49).
In 1855 the city of Pretoria was founded by a son of the Boer leader Andries Pretorius (* 1798, † 1853) and named after his father; 1860–1994 capital of the Transvaal, became the seat of government of the South African Union in 1910 (since 1961 Republic of South Africa). In March 2005, the city council decided to rename Pretoria Tshwane, but this project failed due to popular protests.
Germiston [ d ʒ ə ː m ɪ stən], an industrial city in the metropolitan area Witwatersrand, Province of Gauteng, Republic of South Africa, southeast of Johannesburg, (last raised in 2011) 255,900 residents in the metropolitan area, as Metropolitan Municipality Ekurhuleni km 1975 2 and 3.18 Million residents.
With one of the largest gold refineries on earth; largest railway junction in the country (marshalling yard, workshops).
Pretoria (Tshwane), capital (seat of government) of the Republic of South Africa, with (2011) 741 700 residents.
The city, founded in 1855, was laid out as a garden city with a chessboard-like floor plan.