According to mathgeneral, South Africa also changed the system of government from parliamentary to presidential. In 1984 Botha, elected president of the Republic, concentrated the offices of head of state and government in his hands. In 1985 the situation worsened again and the riots in the African townships surrounding the opulent white cities resumed with serious intensity. As a result of the violent repression of 1984-85, many states applied economic sanctions to South Africa and Botha, having by now against the whole Nationalist Party, resigned in 1989. A turning point began in South African domestic politics with the presidency of FW De Klerk, former leader of the Nationalist Party: under the pressure of the international community and in conjunction with a process of regional pacification that would have led to the independence of Namibia (March 1990), he in fact implemented a progressive dismantling of the apartheid system, at first especially on the social plan, up to the legalization of the ANC and the release of its charismatic leader Nelson Mandela (in prison since 1967).
Despite the emergence of strong extremist resistance, De Klerk continued his intentions by repealing the rules on racial segregation (1991) and activating the constitutional revision process. The complex negotiations, also hampered by violent clashes within the black community between the Zulus organized in theand the ANC militants, led to the approval of a provisional Constitution, approved by De Klerk, Mandela and other political forces and later also by Parliament. Thus opened the way for the first multiracial elections in the history of the country (April 27, 1994). These, despite the negative signs with the resumption of clashes between the ANC and the Zulu and new intimidating demonstrations by the white right, took place regularly by assigning the victory to Nelson Mandela who became head of state (May 9), while De Klerk assumed the vice-presidency. In the first months of 1995 there were strong disagreements in the government coalition, between the ANC and the Nationalist Party, over the proposal to set up a commission of inquiry into the crimes committed by the police in the apartheid period.and the situation in Natal escalated with fierce clashes between ANC militants and supporters of the Zulu Inkhata party. In November 1995 the first free administrative elections were clearly won by the ANC, despite the controversy provoked by the corruption allegations made against Mandela’s wife, Winnie, who was forced to resign from the office of Minister of Culture (but returned almost immediately to politics, by virtue of election as president of the ANC Women’s League). In May 1996 the Parliament approved the new Constitution by plebiscite vote, giving a definitive political structure to post- apartheid South Africa. This Constitution, amended in October in the part relating to the powers of the provinces, as established by the Constitutional Court upon appeal by the National Party (NP) and the Inkatha, entered into force in 1997. In the 1998 elections Mandela, at the end of his mandate, he left political life and was succeeded by vice president Thabo Mbeki (a few months earlier, the former president De Klerk had also withdrawn from political life, abandoning the leadership of the National Party). Jacob Zuma became vice president (post left in 2005). At the end of 1998 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, established in 1996 despite strong disagreements and chaired by Desmond Tutu, at the conclusion of the work he presented a report of clear condemnation against not only the former president Botha, but also Winnie Mandela, the ANC itself and the Church. In July 2002 the new African Union was officially born in Durban (from the OAU) (UA) in the presence of 52 heads of state from the continent. The legislative elections of April 2004 recorded the remarkable success of the ANC, which confirmed itself as the first party: Mbeki was reconfirmed as president. The problems linked to widespread poverty remained serious, fueling environmental degradation, delinquency and diseases, in particular the spread of AIDS: it is estimated that South Africa has the highest percentage of infected with the virus in the world. In 2003, the government presented a health plan that provided for antiretroviral drugs to be made available to public health, thus allowing AIDS patients to be treated for free. In September 2008, following the mistrust given to him by the ANC, President Mbeki announced his resignation and parliament elected Kgalema Motlanthe as provisional successor. J. Zuma, leader of the ANC since 2007, was running for the presidency and in May 2008, following the elections for the renewal of the National Assembly, he assumed this position. In 2011, the 17th United Nations Climate Conference was held in Durban. In December 2013, Nelson Mandela died after a long illness. In 2014 J. Zuma was reconfirmed, despite the growth of social discontent. In 2011, the 17th United Nations Climate Conference was held in Durban. In December 2013, Nelson Mandela died after a long illness. In 2014 J. Zuma was reconfirmed, despite the growth of social discontent. In 2011, the 17th United Nations Climate Conference was held in Durban. In December 2013, Nelson Mandela died after a long illness. In 2014 J. Zuma was reconfirmed, despite the growth of social discontent.