Egypt Country Facts

Egypt Country Facts

Egypt is the birthplace of one of the oldest civilizations in the world. To this day, modern Egypt maintains memories of the glory of the pharaohs, the Grandiose Monuments left across the country. But also the rulers after them, the Greeks, Romans, Arabs and Turks left their traces visible in Egypt to this day. These ancient monuments, which are unique in the world and in some cases superbly preserved, are among the most important sights in the country.

Modern Cairo, the largest city in Egypt, is an overflowing collision between Africa, Arab world and colonial past. The focus in Egypt is undoubtedly on the Nile, without it it could country does not exist. The Sahara spreads out on both sides of the Nile, limited in the east only by the Red Sea with unique diving paradises.

In Egypt, you can combine numerous architectural and natural highlights on a round trip – a fascinating destination for travel and vacation in Northeast Africa.

Egypt connects most tourists with the imposing buildings from ancient times. The pyramids and the Sphinx, for example, are impressive and oversized buildings, they are also among the wonders of the world. It is precisely because of these special sights that millions of visitors come to Egypt every year. Tourism is therefore one of the most important economic sectors in the country. Business with visitors has been booming in recent years in particular, and new tourist complexes and luxury facilities are constantly being created in the dreamlike setting of Egypt. The sea, the sun and the special oriental flair are real magnets.

Since Egypt is on the one hand by the sea and on the other hand a large part of the sights in the immediate vicinity of the Nile, boat trips are particularly suitable in this North African country. This can be a Mediterranean cruise that goes to the port cities of Alexandria or Port Said, or a Nile cruise that offers trips to the pyramids.

The affordable prices ensure that more and more tourists and travelers come to the regions every year to treat themselves to a luxurious holiday. The country benefits economically and socially, as new jobs are constantly being created.

Egypt Country Facts

Egypt: 1,001,450 km² (land: 995,450 km², water: 6,000 km²)

Population in Egypt: 82.1 million residents (July 2011 estimate, COUNTRYAAH.COM), making Egypt the most populous country in Africa after Nigeria and Ethiopia.

Virtually the entire population is Egyptian (approximately 97%). Nubians also live in the south of the country. In the past, the Libyan desert was inhabited by Berbers, today only a few live in the Siwa oasis. Few Arab and Bedscha-speaking nomads live east of the Nile.

Egypt’s Population density: 82.0 people per sq . Km

Population growth in Egypt: 1.96% per year (2011, CIA estimate).

Capital of Egypt: Cairo (estimated 16-17 million residents with suburbs).

Here is a list of the largest cities in Egypt.

Egyptian Form of government: From 1953 to 2011, Egypt was a republic with a presidential regime. The constitution dates from 1971, and emergency laws have been in force since 1981. On February 13, 2011, the Supreme Military Council dissolved the Egyptian parliament and overruled the constitution. Since then, there has been a military government in Egypt.

On February 28, 1922, Egypt achieved independence from Great Britain.

Administrative divisions: 29 governorates (Arabic muhafazat, singular – muhafazah): Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah (El Beheira), Al Fayyum (El Faiyum), Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma ‘iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah (El Monofia), Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur, Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Sadis min Uktubar, As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf (Beni Suef), Bur Sa’id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina ‘(South Sinai), Helwan, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh (Western Desert), Qina (Qena), Shamal Sina ‘(North Sinai), Suhaj (Sohag).

Prime Minister of Egypt: Prime Minister Hesham Qandil, since August 2, 2012

Head of State of Egypt: President Mohamed Morsi, since June 30, 2012

Highest point in Egypt: Mount Catherine, 2,629 m

Lowest point: Qattara Depression, -133 m

Longest river in Egypt: Nile, which flows through Egypt for a length of about 1,550 km (total length of the Nile: about 6,670 km)

Largest lake in Egypt: Nasser reservoir, area on Egyptian territory approx. 4,360 km² (total area of ​​Lake Nasser: approx. 5,250 km²)

Language in Egypt: The official language is Arabic. French and English are common.

Religion: approx. 90% Islam (Sunni); 8 to 10% Christianity (including the Coptic Church) and a small Jewish community.

Local time in Egypt: CET + 1 h. Egypt has not changed between summer and winter time since 2011.
The time difference to Central Europe is +1 h in winter and 0 h in summer.

Telephone code: 0020 or +20

Internet ID

Mains voltage: 220 volts AC, 50 Hz, but often fluctuations. Round plug adapters are recommended.


The Arab Republic of Egypt is located in the far northeast of Africa. The Sinai Peninsula, which also belongs to Egypt, is already geographically attributed to Asia.

Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the east. The land borders are shared in the northeast with the Palestinian Gaza Strip and Israel, in the west with Libya and in the south with Sudan. The border with Sudan is controversial in the Hala’ib triangle in the far southeast of Egypt (see map).

Egypt belongs to the Mashrek states (Arabic: where the sun rises; the east, as a counterpart for Maghreb, Arabic: where the sun sets; the west).

Here you will find a detailed top-graphic map of Egypt.

The vital element for Egypt is without a doubt the river oasis of the Nile, the longest river in the world at 6,671 km. Its source river Kagera rises in the mountains of Burundi and flows through Egypt in the entire south-north length. The Nile Delta on the Mediterranean is approximately 24,000 square kilometers. Although the Nile oasis only covers about three to five percent (depending on the definition) of the country’s surface, almost the entire population of Egypt lives in the riparian regions of the Nile (the only exceptions are some oases and harbors on the coasts to the Mediterranean and Red Sea).

Egypt is usually divided into seven natural areas:

To the south is the section of the Nile Valley between Abu Simbel and Aswan, which belongs to Nubia and Upper Egypt. Due to the construction of the Aswan high dam, this section was flooded by Lake Nasser. North of Lake Nasser, the Nile cut into the limestone of the desert in a box shape. From Lake Nasser to Cairo you will find the Nile Valley, which is extremely important for Egypt, with the fertile river oasis that is up to 25 km wide.

Lower Egypt is located in the north of Cairo. The Nile divides into two main estuaries between the cities of Rosette and Damiette. The approximately 24,000 sq km delta landscape is crossed by countless smaller estuaries, irrigation systems and canals, is very fertile due to the deposited Nile mud and can therefore be cultivated intensively.

The Libyan Desert lies west of the Nile. It covers most of Egypt (around two thirds) as a flat stratified layer. In the north of the Libyan Desert you can find the relatively low Libyan Plateau (up to 241 m high in the Egyptian Staast area). In the Kattara Valley in the southeast, the desert descends to the second lowest point in Africa (133 m below sea level), while in the southwest of the Libyan Desert heights of up to 1,098 m are reached. In general, the relief of the desert is relatively flat, the dune and sand landscapes are only interrupted by some basins and oases such as Siwa, Bahariyya, Farafra, Dachla and Charga. The 1,827 sq km oasis landscape of the Fayyum Basin with Lake Qarun is located about 100 km in the southwest of Cairo.

The Arabian desert in the east of the Nile is dominated by a mountain range heavily furrowed by wadis (dry valleys), the greatest heights here being 2,000 m.

Jabal Katrina (Katharinenberg) rises on the Sinai Peninsula, the highest mountain in Egypt at 2,637 m. The peninsula is bordered by the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba, the 161 km long Suez Canal connects the Red Sea with the Mediterranean.

Outside the Nile Delta, the Egyptian Mediterranean coast is characterized by flat dunes.

The coast on the Red Sea, on the other hand, is more rugged, since mountain ranges often reach directly to the sea. The high water temperatures allow numerous coral reefs to form off the coast.

Population in Egypt

This map of the population distribution in Egypt was created by the Worldmapper team. Densely populated areas appear bloated, the area of ​​sparsely populated areas is reduced. The shape of the grid has been preserved; an underlying map with the original geographical extent helps interpret the map. The distorted map should help to present abstract statistical information clearly.

Egypt Population by Year (Historical)

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