According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER, Uganda is a landlocked country in East Africa. The country lies in the area of the East African highlands with heights of 1000 to 1500 m and is crossed by the East African rift system. In the extreme southwest are the active Virunga volcanoes. Around 44,000 km², which is almost 20% of the total area of the country, are taken up by inland waters in the form of large lakes. The country has a tropical climate, which is tempered by the altitude. The predominant form of vegetation is the savannah, in the mountains, tropical mountain forests thrive, the habitat of the mountain gorillas.
Uganda’s population is of great ethnic diversity with over 40 different peoples. Almost half of the residents belong to the Bantu peoples, a smaller group to the Nilots.
AIDS and a high number of refugees from neighboring countries ravaged by civil wars are causing major problems for the state.
Around 80% of the population live from agriculture, which is used for food production and the cultivation of tea, coffee, cotton and tobacco for export. Industry, on the other hand, is poorly developed and only small amounts of gold and ores are mined.
Uganda was a British colony until 1962. Since then the country has been independent and since 1963 republic.
Uganda is bordered by Sudan to the north, Kenya to the east, Tanzania and Rwanda to the south and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. The border with Kenya and Tanzania runs z. Partly through Lake Victoria, the border to the Democratic Republic of the Congo partly through Lake Edward and Lake Albert. With a land area of around 240,000 km², Uganda is almost the size of Great Britain.
The country name Uganda means “land of the people”. The capital is Kampala.
Uganda lies in the area of the East African highlands at an altitude of about 1000 to 1500 m and is crossed by the East African rift system. This tectonic fault zone extends from the Jordan Rift across the Red Sea to East Africa to the Zambezi and is the cause of volcanism and earthquakes. The extreme west of Uganda belongs to the marginal thresholds of the Central African Rift, part of the East African Rift System. The highest peaks are in the east the Elgon with 4321 m height and in the west the Ruwenzori mountain range. It reaches a height of 5119 m. The active Virunga volcanoes are located in the extreme southwest of Uganda.
Around 40,000 km² of the country’s area are occupied by inland waters. Lake Kioga is in the center of the country, Lake Victoria in the south. Tanzania and Kenya also have a share in it. Parts of the Edward and Albert lakes also belong to Uganda.
The most important river in Uganda is the Victoria Nile. It connects Lake Victoria, Lake Kioga and Lake Albert, which it leaves as the Albert Nile to the north.
The rivers provide almost all of Uganda’s energy needs. Hydroelectric power plants generate electrical energy at the Owen waterfalls on the Victoria Nile and on the Kagera and Kiruruma rivers.
Climate and vegetation
Uganda has a tropical climate that is tempered by the country’s altitude. In Entebbe, which is exactly at the equator at an altitude of 1150 m, the mean monthly temperatures from January to December are 21 to 22 °C (Fig. 3). Precipitation falls all year round. The values are between 1000 and 1500 mm per year. There are distinct rainy seasons from March to May and from September to November. Years of drought are rare.
The predominant form of vegetation is the savannah, while the drier northeast is characterized by thorn bush and dry savannah. The mountain regions are forested. Dense rainforests predominate here.
Important data about the country
|Surface:||241 038 km²|
|Population density:||111 residents / km²|
|Growth of population:||3.2% / year|
|Life expectancy:||43 years|
|Form of government:||republic|
|Languages:||Swahili, English, Bantu languages, West Nilotic languages, East Nilotic languages|
|Religions:||Catholics 40%, Protestants 26%, Muslims 16%, followers of natural religions 18%|
|Climate:||temperate tropical climate|
|Land use:||Arable land 31.5%, pasture land 25%, forest 29.6%|
(share of employees, 2003)
|Agriculture 32%, industry 21%, services 46%|
|Export goods:||Coffee, cotton, tobacco, tea, gold|
|Gross domestic product:||US $ 6,293 million (2003)|
|Gross National Product:||US $ 250 / resident (2003)|
Since its independence from Great Britain in 1962, Uganda has been shaped by civil wars and dictatorships. Nevertheless, the East African country is now one of the most stable countries on the continent. In the recent past, the economy has been able to recover from its collapse in the 1970’s and 1980’s and has seen growth rates. Regular rainfall, fertile soils and rich mineral resources offer favorable conditions for economic success. Uganda is an agricultural country. About 80% of the population live from agriculture. 31.5% of the country’s area is used as arable land. Plantains, corn, millet, potatoes, cassava and legumes are mainly grown for the domestic market. 80% of export revenues are generated through the cultivation of coffee, tea, cotton and tobacco. Livestock farming is important for the country’s self-sufficiency. Mainly cattle, sheep and goats are bred. Inland fishing in the great lakes is important for the domestic market as well as for export. Forestry focuses on the felling of tropical woods, especially mahogany, for export.
The industrial sector of Uganda is poorly developed. Small amounts of copper ore and gold are mined. The most important branches of industry are tobacco processing, food, textile, wood, metal and building material production, and the chemical industry. The main trading partners are Kenya, Great Britain and Germany.
The roads in Uganda are in poor condition. An important railway line runs from Kampala to the export port of Mombasa in Kenya. Two rail ferries operate on Lake Victoria. The only international airport is in Entebbe, not in the capital Kampala.
The earliest residents of Uganda were believed to be pygmies. They were ousted by the Bantu peoples about 2000 years ago.
In the 11th century the Hima from Ethiopia immigrated and subjugated the Bantu.
Hima empires existed in what is now Uganda from the 15th century to 1889.
At the end of the 19th century, European explorers and missionaries came to the country. In 1890 the great powers France, Great Britain and Germany agreed the division of the East African territories. Kenya and Uganda fell to Great Britain.
British rule lasted from 1890 to 1962, when the British gave Uganda independence. In 1963 the country became a republic. Due to the authoritarian politics of the president, a civil war broke out from 1980 to 1994 in Uganda. The domestic political situation has stabilized since 1994.